同性戀權利環遊世界

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Australians have voted in favour of legalising same-sex marriage — but elsewhere in the world gay people can struggle to simply stay out of jail. Being openly gay is effectively illegal in more than 70 國家 - 並且可能導致嚴厲的懲罰, 有時甚至死亡.

看看你的國家的同性婚姻地位在世界各地進行比較.

同性戀權利

選民’ '是’ 應對SSM郵政調查是澳大利亞傾向於允許同性伴侶結婚最新進展, 並且可以證明靠近長壽的高潮.

Campaigners have suggested Australia is lagging behind rest of the world.

它是公平地說,大多數國家有類似文化背景的澳大利亞現在已經合法化同性婚姻, 但基於總人數的國家, 澳大利亞仍然是多數限制結婚情侶的一部分做了一個男人和一個女人的了.

在......之外 209 國家檢查ABC, 只要 24 允許同性伴侶結婚.

There is no same-sex marriage in 亞洲 or the 中東, 和 South Africa is the only country in Africa 已經合法化它.

歐洲, 同性婚姻的法律地位混合. 該 Netherlands 在世界上的第一個國家合法化同性婚姻 2001, with other Western countries including the 英國, 法國, 西班牙Germany 以下是.

Yet more than half of European Union 成員有沒有.

Some countries in Eastern Europe 最近試圖修改了憲法,鞏固了 “傳統的定義” 婚姻:

  • 匈牙利 brought in a new constitution in 2011 這特別限制婚姻異性夫婦.
  • Voters in 克羅地亞 (2013) 和 斯洛伐克 (2015) 投票改變在憲法中婚姻的定義,所以它僅適用於一個男人和一個女人的工會, 雖然斯洛伐克公民投票是無效的由於低投票率.
  • In December 2015, Slovenian voters rejected the legalisation of same-sex marriage in a referendum.

Australia 提出了類似的修正案,其婚姻法案 2004, 將婚姻定義為 “一個人的團結和一個女人的所有其他人的排斥”.

在澳大利亞, Parliament can legalise same-sex marriage by amending the Marriage Act but the Government’s policy has been that its MPs will only be able to vote for same-sex marriage if a majority of Australians support the change via a plebiscite.

The Government’s compulsory plebiscite proposal was defeated in the Senate. 代替, 非強制性的澳大利亞婚姻法郵政調查由統計九月間澳大利亞統計局運行 12 十一月 7.

調查後返回的是結果, 私有成員的法案現在將在議會進行辯論,以同一性別的人之間的婚姻合法化.

走出國家已經合法化同性婚姻:

  • 只有一個國家, 愛爾蘭, 把改變一個人的票. 公投在法律要求, 在五月舉行 2015, 並高票通過.
  • 議會合法化同性婚姻 20 國家.
  • 法院的裁決促使五個國家的變化.

The highest-profile court decision was in the United States 在 2013, 什麼時候最高法院 effectively legalised same-sex marriage by finding the Defence of Marriage Act was unconstitutional.

最近, 在四月份 2017, the Constitutional Court of Taiwan (中華民國) 統治 that the Taiwanese law defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman was unconstitutional. 它下令在修改法律必須在兩年內發生. 在寫這篇文章的時候, 同性婚姻仍處於台灣不可用.

婚姻是在西方國家,但在世界其他地方的重要問題, LGBT人很難簡單地陷身囹圄.

有超過 70 其中同性戀行為是非法的國家.

在上面的圖陰影的國家是那些存在,在部分禁止同性戀行為的法律或所有國家.

Most of these countries fall within two main categories — just over half are former colonies mostly in Africa 那繼承歧視性法律,但從來沒有廢除他們, while the others are 大多數穆斯林國家.

國際男女, 同性戀者, 雙性戀, 跨和雌雄同體協會 (ILGA) publishes an annual report of “國家支持的同性戀恐懼症”.

到底什麼是非法的變化因國家. 二十個州禁止唯一的男人之間的關係.

一個常見的製劑是禁止 “對自然秩序性交”.

有時,同性戀被放在同一類人獸交.

  • 印度 it is an offence to “自行 [有] 違反自然的與任何人的命令性交, 女人或動物”.
  • 毛里求斯, 它是犯罪 “雞姦或獸交”.
  • 烏干達, 法律規定,任何人七年徒刑誰進行同性婚禮.

並非所有的這些法律的國家實際執行他們在家裡同意的性行為.

新加坡 Penal Code prohibits “嚴重猥褻與另一男性人的任何行為” 在 “公共或私人”, 用兩年監禁最高刑罰.

但新加坡助理編劇蔡教授國立大學表示,禁令 “很少在私下被應用, 協商一致的情況和 [是] 典型地在非自願的情況或涉及未成年人的情況下使用”.

同樣, 卓越的全國伊斯蘭研究中心在墨爾本大學的夏奇拉·侯賽因表明,伊斯蘭教 “所有的性問題 … 它不是行為本身即受到懲罰,但它的公共佣金”.

“一些伊斯蘭教學者說,打擊非法性行為的法律基本上應視為危害公眾猥褻法律, 因為它們需要四名證人。”

即使禁令不嚴格執行, 他們往往仍然對LGBT人有害的影響.

Achim Hildebrandt of the University of Stuttgart such bans “代表敲詐和羞辱的威脅時刻存在 … 他們駕駛同性戀者出公共生活,並防止他們要求更多意義深遠的改革,如歧視在工作場所取締和住房市場”.

死刑是在地方的同性性行為至少 11 國家.

按照IGLA, the death penalty applies in 蘇丹, 伊朗, 沙特阿拉伯也門 and in parts of 尼日利亞索馬里.

In theory the death penalty could also be imposed in 毛里塔尼亞, 阿富汗, 巴基斯坦, 卡塔爾 and the 阿拉伯聯合酋長國 through sharia law, 但是這似乎並沒有發生在實踐中.

當死刑被執行上的信息是不容易獲得.

該 “刪除 76 犯罪” 博客, 其倡導的反同性戀的法律在世界各地廢除, indicates that only 伊朗沙特阿拉伯 實際上在最近執行死刑的同性性行為.

該博客的創始人, 科林·斯圖爾特, says that in 沙特阿拉伯 “斬首已經實施在過去同性戀行為, 包括三個男人 2002, 但監禁和鞭打則是更為常見的懲罰”.

伊朗 是世界第二對處決頻率 [中國之後], 包括用於執行同性戀活動, 雖然被懲罰有關的犯罪事實不清經常或新聞帳戶歪曲。”

與此同時, Dr Hussein points out the existence of established trans communities in 伊朗巴基斯坦. 她告訴美國廣播公司:

“一些同性伴侶的男性通過得到醫生規避反同性戀的法律’ 證書說,這對夫妻的一半是女人反式. 按說, 這意味著要跟進手術, 但沒有通過必要進行.

“巴基斯坦已經有了“第三性別’ 全國ID卡上的選項,現​​在幾年 [和] 伊朗擁有世界上男性對女性的反式手術率最高的一個。”

什麼其他形式的騷擾地點進行?

LGBT人的恐嚇並不局限於監獄或死亡的威脅.

Homosexuality is legal in 俄國 but in recent years the Government has imposed laws that ban “提升” 的 “雞姦, 女同性戀, 雙性戀和跨性別”.

Omar G Encarnacion of Bard College in New York suggests that Russia’s law “是如此廣泛,它不法分子的同性戀驕傲遊行, 公開示愛的同性伴侶, 同性戀符號如彩虹旗, 甚至同性戀的公開承認, 除非在從負面的角度投射同性戀的方式進行”.

言歸正傳, 新加坡 takes a tough line on “提升” LGBT的問題 - 至少在紙面上.

據助理蔡教授, “新加坡媒體攜帶的內容是被禁止 “促進”, “證明” 要么 “glamorises” “生活方式,如同性戀, 女同性戀, bisexualism, 易性癖 [和] 性倒錯”.

在2014年年中, 新加坡國家圖書館宣布將紙漿的三個孩子的書冊它與LGBT題材. According to the Government-linked Straits Times Newspaper:

“和探戈做三是基於對誰養小雞一起雄企鵝的真實故事; 白天鵝快運功能養父母比如一對女同性戀; 和誰是我的家人彰顯不同的家庭結構,包括同性的父母。”

輿論嘩然之後, 兩書都還給圖書館,但放置在成人’ 部分.

在六月 2016, the Singapore Government announced that “外國機構不應該資助, 支持或影響” Pinkdot, 在新加坡公園每年舉辦一次LGBT事件.

布拉德·亞當斯, 人權觀察亞洲部主任, suggests “新加坡的要求,即外國公司停止贊助PinkDot鼓勵企業反對LGBT人歧視”.

在其他國家的領導人自由使用針對LGBT人群的歧視性語言:

  • 在 2015, the mayor of Budapest in 匈牙利 described the city’s Gay Pride rally as “醜惡”.
  • 在非洲, 烏干達 president Yoweri Museveni has describedhomosexual people as “討厭”.

The ABC has recently reported on LGBT Ugandans fleeing the country as refugees.

津巴布韋 President Robert Mugabe has previously said that:”Homosexuals are worse than dogs and pigs; dogs and pigs will never engage in homosexual madness,” and followed this up in 2013 by stating that LGBT people wereworse than pigs, goats and birds”.

在 2016 the ageing ruler vowed that Zimbabwe would reject any foreign aid that isgiven on the basis that we accept the principle of gay marriages”.

Are things getting better for LGBT people?

With LGBT harassment and criminal penalties continuing in Africa, 亞洲, the 中東 and parts of 歐洲, the picture may seem bleak.

But veteran campaigner Peter Tatchell, who famously attempted a citizen’s arrest of Robert Mugabe in March 2001 and was then beaten by the president’s bodyguards, is more optimistic.

There are rays of hope [in Africa], with the Seychelles, MozambiqueSao Tome & Principe recently decriminalising homosexuality [和] 在 2014, the African Commission on Human Rights and People’s Rights urged member states to protect LGBT people against discrimination and violence,” he says.

Ty Cobb from Human Rights Campaign said: “We have seen great progress with regards to global LGBTQ rights in recent years, with three countries decriminalising same-sex activity just [在 2016], 20 countries and certain jurisdictions in Mexico have marriage equality and more and more countries are taking measures to improve the lives of trans individuals.

與此同時, Mr Cobb notes that anti-LGBT movements continue to work against the community.

Extremists have organised marches against marriage equality efforts in Mexico, American evangelicals have resorted to exporting their dangerous messages of hate from Eastern Europe to Africa, 和 [Islamic State] continues to target and kill members of the LGBTQ community throughout the Arab world,” he says.

新加坡, there are signs of increased cultural acceptance of the LGBT community, with the 2016 release of home-grown web drama People Like Us taking place with no real backlash.

Telling the stories of four gay men in 新加坡, the series has been well-received by the local community.

Filmaker Leon Cheo says apart from somethumbs-downon YouTube, “we haven’t received flak or negative emails or comments from Singaporeans at large”.

Mr Cheo says while the situation for LGBT people in Singapore is improving, “challenges such as censorship of neutral and positive LGBT news, film and TV, and archaic anti-sodomy laws still exist”.

One of our creative objectives was to portray Asian gay men neutrally or positively [so that the] series could play a part in changing the hearts and minds of the citizens and government of Singapore,” he says.

In the 中東, LGBT rights remain strongest in Israel although it is unclear whether or when same-sex marriage might be legalised there.

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